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Betacaroten og A-vitamin

  1. Band P.R. et al. Treatment of Benign Breast Disease with Vitamin A. Prev Med 549-54, 1984.
  2. Bendich A. Symposium conclusions: Biological actions of carotenoids. J Nutr 119: 112-5, 1989. 
  3. Bichler KH et al. Influence of vitamin A deficiency on the excretion of uromucoid and other substances in the urine of rats. Clin Nephrol 20:32-9, 1983.
  4. Branowitz SA, Starrett B, Brookner AR. Carotene deficiency in HIV patients. AIDS 10; (1):115, 1996.
  5. Burton GW, Ingold KU. Beta-carotene. An unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Scicnce 224: 569-573, 1984. 
  6. Cheraskin E, Ringsdorf WM, Medford FH. The 'ideal' daily vitamin A intake. Int J Vit Nutr Res 46: 11-13, 1976. 
  7. Chole Q. Vitamin A in the cochlea. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 124:379-82, 1978.
  8. Comstock GW et al. Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol preceding the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 56: 323-5, 1997.
  9. Connett JE, Kuller KH, Kjelsberg MO et al. Relationship between carotenoids and cancer. Cancer 64: 126-134, 1989. 
  10. Coutsoudis A, Bobat R, Coovadia H. The effects of vitamin-A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Am J Public Health 85; (8):1076-81, 1995.
  11. Delmas-Beauvieux M-C, Peuchant E, Couchouron A, et al. The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: Effects of supplementation with selenium or carotene. Am J Clin Nutr 64: 101-7, 1996.
  12. DiMascio P, Murphy ME, Sies H. Antioxidant defense systems the role of carotenoids, tocopherols and thiols. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 194S-200S, 1991. 
  13. Eldred GE. Vitamins A and E in RPE lipofuscin formation and implications for age-related macular degeneration. Prog Clin Biol Res 314: 113-29, 1989. 
  14. Ferreira R et al. Antioxidant action of vitamins A and E in patients submitted to coronary bypass surgery. Vasc Surg 25: 191-195, 1991. 
  15. Gaby SK, Singh VN. Vitamin intake and health: A scientific review. New York: Marcel Dekker. p 29-57, 1991. 
  16. Gershoff SN, McGandy RB. The effects of vitamin A-deficient diets containing lactose in producing bladder calculi and tumors in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 483, 1981.
  17. Goodman DS. Vitamin A and retinoids in heath and disease. N Eng J Med 310: 1023-1031, 1984. 
  18. Hayes KC. Retinal degeneration in monkeys induced by deficiencies of vitamin E or A. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 13:7:499-510, 1974. 
  19. Honkanen V et al. Vitamins A and E, retinol binding protein and zinc in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 7: 465-9, 1989.
  20. Honkanen VEA et al. Serum cholesterol and vitamins A and E in juvenile chronic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 8: 187-91, 1990.
  21. Liao CH, Erdman JW, Johnston PV. Dietary vitamin A deficiency and the immune system in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Nutr Res 16: 279-92, 1996.
  22. Lohle E. The influence of chronic vitamin A deficiency on human and animal ears. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 234:167-73, 1982.
  23. Mckeown LA. Beta carotene lifts CD4 counts. Study reported in Medical Tribune Feb. 25, p. 1. 1993.
  24. Mobarhan S, Bowen P, Andersen B et al. Effects of beta-carotene repletion on beta-carotene absorption, lipid peroxidation, and neutrophil superoxide formation in young men. Nutr Cancer 14: 195-206, 1990. 
  25. Newbold PCH. Beta-carotene in the treatment of discoid lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 95: 100-1, 1976.
  26. Olson JA. Vitamin A. In: Present knowledge in nutrition. 7th edn. Washington DC: Intemational Life Sciences Press. p 109-119, 1996. 
  27. Oson JA. Provitamin A function of carotenoids. Thc conversion of B-carotene to Vitamin A. J Nutr 119: 105-108, 1989. 
  28. Paganini-Hill A, Chao A, Ross RK et al. Vitamin A, beta carotene and the risk of cancer. A prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 79: 443-448, 1987. 
  29. Palgi A. Association between dietary changes and morality rates; Israel 1949 to 1977; a trend-free regression model. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 1569-1583, 1981. 
  30. Prince MR, Frisoli JK. Beta-carotene accumulation in serum and skin. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 175-181, 1993. 
  31. Pryor WA. The antioxidant nutrients and disease prevention what do we know and what do we need to find out? Am J Clin Nutr 53: 391S-393S, 1991. 
  32. Riemersma RA, Wood DA, MacIntyre CCH, et al. Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C and E and carotene. Lancet 337:1-5, 1991. 
  33. Romeo G. The therapeutic effect of vitamins A and E in neurosensory hearing loss. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 7 Suppl:85-92, 1985.
  34. Sahyoun NR et al. Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 144:5:501-11, 1996. 
  35. Sappey C et al. Vitamin, Trace element and Peroxide status in HIV seropositive patients: Asymptomatic patients present a severe Carotene Deficiency. Clin Clim Acta 230:35-42, 1994.
  36. Semba R, Graham N, Caiaffa W, et al. Increased Mortality associated with Vitamin A Deficiency during Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 153:2149-54, 1993.
  37. Semba RD, Park S, Royal W, Griffin DE. Vitamin A deficiency and T-cell subpopulation in HIV-infected adults. Nutr Res 16:915-23, 1996.
  38. Sommer A., West, KP. The duration of the effect of vitamin A supplementation. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 467, 1997. 
  39. Salonen JT. Risk of cancer in relation to serum concentrations of selenium and vitamins A and E: matched case-control analysis of prospective data. Br Mcd J 1985, 290: 417-420, 1985. 
  40. Schauss AG. Beta-carotene and the incidence of lung cancer in Finnish male smokers. A critique. Q Rev Natural Med 191-195, 1994. 
  41. Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 272:1413-20, 1994. 
  42. Stahelin HB, Gey KB, Eichholzer M et al. Beta-carotene and cancer prevention. The Basel Study. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 265S-269S, 1991. 
  43. Street DA et al. Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction: Are low levels of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation 90;3:1154-61, 1994. 
  44. Tang AM et al. Association between Serum Vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 11:613-20, 1997.
  45. Underwood BA. Was the 'anti-infective' vitamin misnamed? Nutr Rev 52: 140-143, 1994. 
  46. Vitale S et al. Plasma vitamin C, E and beta carotene levels and risk of cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 32:723, 1991. 
  47. Weisburger J. Nutritional approach to cancer prevention with emphasis on vitamins, antioxidants, and carotenoids. Am J Clin Nutr 53: S226-237, 1991. 
  48. Weisberger JH. Nutritional approach to cancer prevention with emphasis on vitamins, antioxidants, and carotenoids. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 53: 226s.
  49. Werler MA, Lammer EJ, Mitchell AA. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. Letter. N Eng J Med 334: 1195, 1995. 
  50. White WS, Kim Cl, Kalkwarf HJ et al. Ultraviolet light-induced reduction in plasma carotenoid levels. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 879-883, 1988. 
  51. Willette W. Nutritional epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press. p 292-310, 1990. 
  52. Ziegler RG. Vegetables, fruits and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 251S-259S, 1991. 



Joseph E. Pizzorno Jr., Michael T. Murrey & Melvyn R. Werbach.